Saturday, March 14, 2020
Using Calculus To Calculate Income Elasticity of Demand Suppose youre given the following question: Demand is Q -110P 0.32I, where P is the price of the good and I is the consumers income. What is the income elasticity of demand when income is 20,000 and price is $5? We saw that we can calculate any elasticity by the formula: Elasticity of Z with respect to Y (dZ / dY)*(Y/Z) Price elasticity of income: (dQ / dI)*(I/Q) demand equation dQ/dI 0.32 Income elasticity of demand: (dQ / dI)*(I/Q)Income elasticity of demand: (0.32)*(I/(-110P 0.32I))Income elasticity of demand: 0.32I/(-110P 0.32I) Income elasticity of demand: 0.32I/(-110P 0.32I)Income elasticity of demand: 6400/(-550 6400)Income elasticity of demand: 6400/5850Income elasticity of demand: 1.094 Demand is Income Elastic Next: Using Calculus To Calculate Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand Other Price Elasticity Equations Using Calculus To Calculate Price Elasticity of Demand Using Calculus To Calculate Income Elasticity of Demand Using Calculus To Calculate Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand Using Calculus To Calculate Price Elasticity of Supply
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Immigration law - Essay Example Nevertheless, even though Article 8 provides the guidelines for human rights, it also emphasizes the best interest of the children. However, reviews of juvenile legislations of many countries around the world reveal that several nations fail to secure the best interests of their children. The position of the UK courts in relation to case law and legislation In ZH (Tanzania) v Secretary of State for the Home Department1, the court held that whenever parents are faced with deportation, the authorities have to consider the best interests of the children especially where the children have UK citizenship. By taking into account the plight of children in this case, Lord Baroness made judgment that was in line with Article 8 of ECHR. In this case, a mother of two appealed in a court of law after facing deportation charges which could also affect her two children who were British citizens by birth. Even though the mother had attained asylum in the UK illegally, the court held that removing h er would be disproportionate as it would violate the rights bestowed to the children in Article 8. Many governments are presently considering amending their immigration rules in order to have a clear legal framework in respect of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest in any removal case. Notably, the interests of a child according to Moreham are taken care of where a child is allowed to remain with the parents in case of leaving the country.2 However, where a child is born in a country in which the parents are not domiciled and the state wishes to remove the parents, then the child can be granted temporary stay based on circumstances that best serve interest such as education or health. In Britain, for a child to be granted permanent residence after extradition of the parents, Thym observes that such a child must have been a resident for not less than six years.3 The position of the UK and the criteria used in discharging its duties and proportionality in protection of minors Under the UK immigration laws, the interests of children must be taken care of and therefore any British court should establish the reasonableness of moving a child to another country. The UK immigration Act 1971 prohibits removal of British citizens. However, in a situation where a non-citizen parent is forcefully removed and decides to move with the children, then the children will have no option but to move with the parent. Nevertheless, these children remain British citizen not only by virtue of birth, but also because they have been resident of UK in the course of their lives. Disappointingly, such children will not enjoy the privileges of growing in their own culture and therefore in carrying out proportionality assessment, the British legal system emphasizes that the best interest of a child must remain a key consideration. Where interest of a child is outweighed by other considerations and in a situation that demands strict adherence to immigration controls, Lord Hope argued that moving children to another country would be tantamount to making them lose the benefits of UK citizenship for the rest of their lives. Undeniably, there is an ensuing tension between provisions of ECHR and how the European Court of Human
Monday, February 10, 2020
On what basis should the presence of mental disorder influence decisions in the criminal justice system - Essay Example It should be noted that the latter law was abolished during the nineteen sixties; however some individuals may still be liable to such conditions. (UK government, 2008) In the guilty bust insane verdict provided for in the 1883 Lunatics Act, the law states that when a certain individual was accused of a crime and that sufficient evidence is given in order to support those accusations as to make that respective individual guilty, then that person may be found guilty but insane of it was also proven that that respective individual was insane. The special verdict can be passed even when the person under consideration seems to be in good mental health at the time of the trial but it was affirmed that during the process of committing the criminal Act, this was not the case. (The BBC, 1999) Back in the year 1907, The House of Lords held that there should be no appeal against such cases that an accused had in fact committed the act owing to the fact that the suspect does not posses a guilty mind to carry out that Act. The latter decision was validated during Felstead  AC 534. It should be noted that this law was applicable throughout much of this century until the nineteen sixties. At that time, Northern Ireland passed a law of not guilty on the basis of insanity. This was known as the Mental Health Act. Additionally at that time, the Insanity Act of 1964 was passed in England and Wales where a guilty but inane verdict was changed to one known as the guilty by reason of insanity. In the Criminal Appeal Act of England and Wales (1968) it was put forward that there sections 12 and 14 allowed for appeals. On the other hand, there were of appeals against the guilty but insane verdict within Northern Ireland. (Giddens, 1998) In the Criminal Cases Review Commission, there was a need to look into some of the issues to be
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Case Brief Essay Mr. David R. Bullock filed an appeal from his convictions for attempted statutory rape, and attempted sexual exploitation of a minor. David R. Bullock put himself in numerous conversations via email and chat rooms with a Newton County Deputy Sheriff who was conducting a sting operation against pedophiles. The Deputy took on a persona of a thirteen year old female by the name of Ã¢â¬Å"Ashley AnneÃ¢â¬ . Many of the conversations that took place between Mr. Bullock and Ã¢â¬Å"AshleyÃ¢â¬ were of a sexual nature. During conversations between Mr. Bullock and Ã¢â¬Å"AshleyÃ¢â¬ , he discussed how he would like to engage in certain acts (sexual) with her and her friends (girls of younger age) and how he would like to video those acts. He informed Ã¢â¬Å"AshleyÃ¢â¬ that the conversations about meeting with her and her friends should not be discussed because it was not legal for them to meet. Eventually a meeting was scheduled for a time and a place to meet and specific instructions were given to Ã¢â¬Å"AshleyÃ¢â¬ on how the meeting should take place. Ã¢â¬Å"AshleyÃ¢â¬ was told that upon her arrival to the specified location, she should meet Mr. Bullock in a specific area of that location. History On October 18, 2002, Mr. Bullock and the decoy Ã¢â¬Å"AshleyÃ¢â¬ were present at the specified location, along with computer and video equipment in his vehicle, which ultimately leads to the arrest of Mr. Bullock. At the time of the arrest, Mr. Bullock did not deny having conversations with Ã¢â¬Å"AshleyÃ¢â¬ but explained that if she would arrive, he just wanted her to be counseled by the authorities on the dangers of meeting strangers on the internet. Mr. Bullock argues that his case is a case of entrapment and that he took no Ã¢â¬Å"substantial stepsÃ¢â¬ towards committing the crimes he has been charged with. Issue: The sufficiency of the evidence is challenged and Appellant claims an entrapment defense for the reason that he was not predisposed to engage in the charged offenses, we shall set forth in greater detail a series of sordid internet and telephone communications between Appellant and the purportedÃ¢â¬â°3 victim than we usually would. Holding First, Appellant does not admit that he committed the crimes for which he was convicted and, second, there is no evidence that Appellant was not predisposed, ready and willing to commit these crimes. Ã¢â¬â Appellant did not meet his burden of injecting into the case a proper case for entrapment. Rational Appellant tendered four jury instructions alleging the affirmative defense of entrapment. Ã¢â¬â Appellant cites to the evidence that Ashley induced Appellant to take the Ã¢â¬Å"substantial stepÃ¢â¬ of committing the crimes of statutory rape and sexual exploitation of a minor when he was not otherwise so inclined. Ã¢â¬â Appellant contends that he was only willing to express his fantasies, which was not a crime he was charged or convicted of, and he was not willing to act upon his fantasies without the inducement by Ashley. Ã¢â¬â He notes that Ashley initiated the majority of contacts with Appellant; specifically, he claims Ashley initiated seventeen of the nineteen instant messages and four of the eight e-mails between her and Appellant. Ã¢â¬â Appellant indicated the portions of the conversations where Ashley first proposed that Appellant come to Diamond and persisted in trying to set a firm date; he claims he was reluctant to act on his desires. Ã¢â¬â Appellants cla im that he would not have committed the charged offenses but for the enticement by Ashley is not supported by the evidence.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
This essay concerns the psychology of cognitive development. Cognitive development can be explained in terms of the acquisition, construction and progressive change in thought processes such as memory, problem-solving and decision-making that occurs from childhood to adulthood (in Smith, P.K., Cowie, H & Blades, M. 2003). Major pioneers in this area and whose work has been the foundation of much research in cognitive psychology are among Jean PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s (1926) and Lev VygotksyÃ¢â¬â¢s (1978). A common understanding between the two rest on the idea that cognitive development in children occurs through stages, however, their approach in identifying these stages highly differ (in Smith P.K. et al., 2003). PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s account of cognitive development has been one of the many influential theories of time, receiving great recognition and popularity. According to Piaget children possess an innate capacity to learn human language and skills and are born with and acquire schemas (in Smith P.K. et al., 2003). Schemas are an internal representation of our surroundings which construct of a framework of cognitive processes that help us organise or interpret situations formal (in Passer, M., Smith, R., Holt, N., Bremner, A., Sutherland, E., & Vliek, M. 2009). Piaget proposed that cognitive development was restricted if schemas did not reach a threshold level (in Smith P.K. et al., 2003). In addition, Piaget further theorised that children actively construct their own world as a means of understanding their environment. The more actively engaged a child is with their environment, the more they will learn (in Smith P.K. et al., 2003). Along with this, Piaget contended that children need to be psychologically mature in order to understand the world a... ...ialisation (in Smith P.K. et al., 2003). Moreover, Siegler, (1986 in Passer, M. et al., 2009) argued that PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s stages seemed to be incompatible with reality claiming that children are able to perform tasks that are ascribed to a specific stage in a different stage therefore not being consistent with PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s assumptions. In conclusion, it is evident that both Piaget and Vygotsky acknowledge cognitive development in children as a process and view the child as an active learner. However, it is important that we distinguish between their different stages of development. Works Cited Smith, P.K., Cowie, H. & Baldes, M. (2003). Understanding childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development. (4th ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. Passer, M., Smith, R., Holt, N., Bremner, A., Sutherland, E., & Vliek, M. (2009). Psychology; Science of Mind and Behaviour. (European Edition). New York.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
British scientific researchers demonstrated that genetically modified DNA from crops can find its way into human gut bacteria, raising possible health concerns. This is because antibiotic-resistant marker genes are inserted with GM material, which could cause a person to be resistant to antibiotic medicines. The study was conducted at Newcastle University on seven human volunteers who, in the past, had their lower intestine removed and now use colostomy bags. After eating a burger containing GM soy, researchers compared their stools with 12 people with normal stomachs. They found Ã¢â¬Å"to their surpriseÃ¢â¬ that Ã¢â¬Å"a relatively large proportion of genetically modified DNA survived the passage through the small bowel. Ã¢â¬ None was found in people who had complete stomachs. To see if GM DNA might be be transferred via bacteria to the intestine, they also took bacteria from stools in the colostomy bags and cultivated them. In three of the seven samples they found bacteria had taken up the herbicide-resistant gene from the GM food at a very low level. Michael Antonio, a senior lecturer in molecular genetics at King`s College Medical School, London, said that the work was significant because the researchers demonstrated that you can get GM plant DNA in the gut bacteria, which was previously considered to be not possible. Antonio said the research suggests that antibiotic marker genes could spread around the stomach and compromise antibiotic resistance. If this were to happen, a person could be immune to beneficial antiobiotic medicines. Marker genes are inserted into GM plants to allow identification of GM cells or tissue during development. The House of Lords has called for them to be phased out as swiftly as possible. The research was conducted at the request of the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s Food Standards Agency, which released a statement saying the research, Ã¢â¬Å"concluded that the likelihood of functioning DNA being taken up by bacteria in the human or animal gut is extremely low. Ã¢â¬ * Genetically modified foods may gain undesirable properties. * The preservation of genetic variety in one specie is difficult. The technology make farmer to produce only one type fertile plants. * The technology may cause undesirable degeneration. So, surprisingly, low quality products may be obtained. * Genetically modified foods may change the microbial flora of the soil. It may cause deperdition of essential microorganisms on soil. This ruin natural balance. * When genetically altered microorganisms are consumed with food products, they may consolidate with human or animal organism. His combination may cause deperdition, metamorphosis, or any other strange organisms. * If the foods which were made antibiotic resistant by gene technology are consumed, it may give the same property to human. This cause failure of antibiotic-based treatments. * By this technology transferred genes may contaminate to other organisms undesirably. This may cause biologic disaster. * As a ring of nature chain, insects may be influenced by genetically modified foods and insects can develop resistant mechanism. * Even beneficial foods that carry toxic effect genes can cause human illness. * There is a risk of formation one kind of flora. * Other organisms in the same medium may be influenced by genetically modified foods. Video Transcription. This transcription will have some mistakes because it is partially automated. Hey guys! This is Heather from HealthyEatingStartsHere. com. Today I wanted to talk to you about the disadvantages of genetically modified food. I do mention genetic modification every so often and to be on the lookout for it and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s one of the reasons why I buy organic foods. And whenever I mentioned I always got a lot of question what it is? Why is it bad? All that kind of stuff! So first of all letÃ¢â¬â¢s look out what exactly it is. Genetic modification is when a scientist, genetic engineer goes into the actual DNA of a seed and changes something about the DNA. What it is depends on what they are trying to do. Often in food crops what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re doing is theyÃ¢â¬â¢re slicing in a little bit of some other species of plant or animal into the seed for certain traits that they want that plant to have. So if you are a vegan and youÃ¢â¬â¢re concern about animal rights and the use of animal products in your food, you wanna be really careful about genetically modified food because they might have some animal genes place in. And that involves not only the animal gene but obviously they are taking it from somewhere so there is some kind of animal experimentation going on. Aside from that, another thing that often comes up in question of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the difference between genetic modification and hybridization? Because people have been making hybrids for a long time, is that bad? Well, the difference is with hybrid foods what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re doing is that they are taking two plants and theyÃ¢â¬â¢re putting them together, kind of like mating them and producing a slightly different second generation off spring. So, itÃ¢â¬â¢s different because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not going actually on the actual DNA of the seeds and changing things mechanically. They are cross breeding and hybridization have been going on for a long long time since the beginning of agriculture really and genetic modification is very very new. It only started being experimented with in the late 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s and then itÃ¢â¬â¢s only been on the commercial scale since the late 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. So not a lot of time they have been gathering data on what the long term effects are and that is one of the main disadvantages that people talk about with genetic modification. Today I want to focus more on the positive and look at what can we come up with as better solutions to whatever it is that people are trying to which are like genetic modification. If you want to read more about the disadvantages, I did write about them in my blogs, you can check that out at HealthyEatingstartsHere. com but again letÃ¢â¬â¢s take a look on the positive. The benefits that people are going for in genetic modification, one of the first one is the resistant to pesticides and herbicides. What happens there is well letÃ¢â¬â¢s take the biggest example which is Roundup ready crops. Roundup is a chemical that is a herbicides so it kills plants. You probably heard of it, people use it on their lawn, stuff like that and basically just wipes everything out. And whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the company that produces Roundup called Monsanto wants to do is allow farmers to go out and spray field of crops and have Roundup kill all of the weeds that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want but leave the crops growing. So what they do is they go onto the seeds of these major crops and changed it so that Roundup does not kill them. So thatÃ¢â¬â¢s one of the biggest and first uses of genetic modification and the solution there if you look at organic food production, the bases behind the whole process is about making plants healthy, making the soil healthy first so that it grows healthy plants and those healthy plants wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have diseases wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get pests and will grow in healthy soil and the weeds wonÃ¢â¬â¢t even be a problem. So it eliminates the need for these Roundup ready crops, I mean itÃ¢â¬â¢s more complex than that but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the Ã¢â¬â the basic idea is letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at what we want and create that rather than taking how things are and kind of putting a band aid on it and trying to make it better. So you can read a little more about this over at my blog, go check that out but I wanna hear from you guys. Leave me a comment and let me know what you think about genetically modified foods. And whether you think there are some major disadvantages, whether you think theyÃ¢â¬â¢re important, what you think are some good solutions that would be really awesome thing hear from you guys, what you think some better ways of doing things would be so let me know and IÃ¢â¬â¢ll see you guys next time. < p>Hey guys! This is Heather from HealthyEatingStartsHere. com. Today I wanted to talk to you about the disadvantages of genetically modified food. I do mention genetic modification every so often and to be on the lookout for it and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s one of the reasons why I buy organic foods. And whenever I mentioned I always got a lot of question what it is? Why is it bad? All that kind of stuff! Ã first of all letÃ¢â¬â¢s look out what exactly it is. Genetic modification is when a scientist, genetic engineer goes into the actual DNA of a seed and changes something about the DNA. What it is depends on what they are trying to do. Often in food crops what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re doing is theyÃ¢â¬â¢re slicing in a little bit of some other species of plant or animal into the seed for certain traits that they want that plant to have. So if you are a vegan and youÃ¢â¬â¢re concern about animal rights and the use of animal products in your food, you wanna be really careful about genetically modified food because they might have some animal genes place in. And that involves not only the animal gene but obviously they are taking it from somewhere so there is some kind of animal experimentation going on. Aside from that, another thing that often comes up in question of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the difference between genetic modification and hybridization? Because people have been making hybrids for a long time, is that bad? Well, the difference is with hybrid foods what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re doing is that they are taking two plants and theyÃ¢â¬â¢re putting them together, kind of like mating them and producing a slightly different second generation off spring. So, itÃ¢â¬â¢s different because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not going actually on the actual DNA of the seeds and changing things mechanically. They are cross breeding and hybridization have been going on for a long long time since the beginning of agriculture really and genetic modification is very very new. It only started being experimented with in the late 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s and then itÃ¢â¬â¢s only been on the commercial scale since the late 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. So not a lot of time they have been gathering data on what the long term effects are and that is one of the main disadvantages that people talk about with genetic modification. Today I want to focus more on the positive and look at what can we come up with as better solutions to whatever it is that people are trying to which are like genetic modification. If you want to read more about the disadvantages, I did write about them in my blogs, you can check that out at HealthyEatingstartsHere. com but again letÃ¢â¬â¢s take a look on the positive. The benefits that people are going for in genetic modification, one of the first one is the resistant to pesticides and herbicides. What happens there is well letÃ¢â¬â¢s take the biggest example which is Roundup ready crops. Roundup is a chemical that is a herbicides so it kills plants. You probably heard of it, people use it on their lawn, stuff like that and basically just wipes everything out. < p>And whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the company that produces Roundup called Monsanto wants to do is allow farmers to go out and spray field of crops and have Roundup kill all of the weeds that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want but leave the crops growing. So what they do is they go onto the seeds of these major crops and changed it so that Roundup does not kill them. So thatÃ¢â¬â¢s one of the biggest and first uses of genetic modification and the solution there if you look at organic food production, the bases behind the whole process is about making plants healthy, making the soil healthy first so that it grows healthy plants and those healthy plants wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have diseases wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get pests and will grow in healthy soil and the weeds wonÃ¢â¬â¢t even be a problem. So it eliminates the need for these Roundup ready crops, I mean itÃ¢â¬â¢s more complex than that but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the Ã¢â¬â the basic idea is letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at what we want and create that rather than taking how things are and kind of putting a band aid on it and trying to make it better. So you can read a little more about this over at my blog, go check that out but I wanna hear from you guys. Leave me a comment and let me know what you think about genetically modified foods. And whether you think there are some major disadvantages, whether you think theyÃ¢â¬â¢re important, what you think are some good solutions that would be really awesome thing hear from you guys, what you think some better ways of doing things would be so let me know and IÃ¢â¬â¢ll see you guys next time. A lot of people arenÃ¢â¬â¢t clear on what exactly genetically modified food is. Very simply, itÃ¢â¬â¢s food thatÃ¢â¬â¢s been changed on a genetic level through genetic engineering. The process usually involves splicing in a gene from a different species of plant or animal to take advantage of certain traits. Hybridization causes some confusion here, since itÃ¢â¬â¢s also a way of breeding plants (or animals) for certain traits. The difference is that hybrid food is created through cross-breeding two plants into a second generation. Genetic modification is done directly in the DNA of a seed. The main benefits producers are going for in genetically modifying food plants is a resistance to pesticides and herbicides, better tolerance of extreme weather conditions (like drought), longer shelf lives, and an increase of certain nutrients (like vitamin A-infused rice). That all sounds good on paper, but there are some serious disadvantages of genetically modified food. The most blatant one is that this GM seeds are already in widespread use in the industrial agriculture food chain without having had long-term testing. They only started small scale experiments in the late 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, and large scale operations started in the late 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. The future effects on our health, our environment and the sustainability of our food crops arenÃ¢â¬â¢t easy to predict in the best of times, but GM foods and crops throw a real curveball in the mix. Because they are a fundamentally new organism, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot of speculation that GM foods are treated as allergens Ã¢â¬â foreign invaders Ã¢â¬â by our bodies. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s also the potential of splicing in a gene that is a natural allergen. The disadvantages of genetically modified food donÃ¢â¬â¢t stop at health and environmental concerns. There are some serious social justice issues, where farmers in developing nations (and even those in rich countries) are generating massive profits for large corporations without any gains for themselves. In fact, lots of farmers in India kill themselves because they just canÃ¢â¬â¢t see a way out of the downward spiral of paying for seeds that require paying for pesticides and fertilizers and machinery, then paying for more seeds and now having to pay for irrigation systems because their land is drying outÃ¢â¬ ¦ Now, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just a quick overview of the disadvantages of genetically modified food. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t really like to dwell too long on the negative side of things, but sometimes itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to know why you donÃ¢â¬â¢t do certain things. What I much prefer looking at is the positive side of what you can do instead. If you look at the benefits of GM crops, there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a need to use genetic modification to get them. Organic methods of growing food are about making plants optimally healthy, so that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t need pesticides, fertilizers or herbicides. Growing healthy plants from healthy soil also makes for higher nutrient levels, and getting a variety of healthy foods is a better way of getting nutrients than protein-enhanced sweet potatoes or vitamin A-enhanced rice. Growing food in polycultures (lots of different types of plants together) rather than massive monocultures (like the enormous fields of corn or soy beans you see all over North America), and using different varieties of plants brings biodiversity that can better withstand extreme environmental conditions. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s like building diversity in your investment portfolio Ã¢â¬â having a wide variety of stocks helps lessen the impact of one or a few companies crashing. Local food systems make shelf life less of an issue. Besides, do you really want to eat rice that could last for a few years? When the farmers are the ones who are starving, there is something seriously wrong in our food supply chain. My main question is this: If there are so many unknowns and disadvantages of genetically modified food, why donÃ¢â¬â¢t we put our efforts into better solutions Ã¢â¬â ones that address the root of the issues? The best way to avoid the disadvantages of genetically modified food is to grow your own Ã¢â¬â and if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have space or time for a vegetable garden, a jar of sprouts on the windowsill is still awesome. If you need pointers, you can watch me show just how easy it is to grow alfalfa sprouts at home. Want to know it? Answers to lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s questions Want to know it? This blog has a little bit of everything to challenge your mind and find answers to lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s questions. Home Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Food By: Want To Know It Photo Credit wheat field image by Soja Andrzej from Fotolia. com Genetic engineering has been practiced in the form of selective breeding throughout the history of agriculture. However, the discovery in 1953 of the structure of DNA gave scientists the ability to insert genes from one life form into those of a completely separate life form, thus arriving at the modern genetic engineering movement. Genetic engineering is fraught with controversy regarding its ethical and moral implications and health effects. Cancer Genetically modified foods share certain toxic effects on the liver, pancreas, kidneys and reproductive system that may cause cancer in these organs, according to a Greek study published in the February 2009 Ã¢â¬Å"Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. Ã¢â¬ The widespread use of recombinant growth hormone Ã¢â¬â a genetically modified substance Ã¢â¬â in the agricultural industry is associated with increases in IGF-1, a growth hormone that, in excess quantities, can lead to cancer. Sponsored Links Humanization Special Rapid, Powerful, Full length IgG Short time only End-of-Year Pricing www. BioAtla. com Allergy Allergic reactions to genetically modified foods may arise due to the presence of proteins derived from the plant or animal used to modify the food, according to a U. S. study published in the July 2009 Ã¢â¬Å"Toxicological Sciences. Ã¢â¬ Current safety standards involve evaluation of the foreign proteins for allergenic potential, and a database of known allergenic proteins has been compiled, along with computer programs for assessing potential allergenicity of proteins. Additionally, animal and non-animal testing methods are being developed to assist in the process of screening for allergenicity. Intestinal Immunity Genetically modified corn caused an immune reaction in mice in an Italian study published in the December 2008 Ã¢â¬Å"Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Ã¢â¬ Mice fed genetically modified corn for 30 days showed altered levels of white blood cells; interleukins, a category of protein molecules that regulate immune function; and MIP-1beta, a chemical produced by certain white blood cells that initiates inflammation. The researchers noted that young and old mice were similarly affected by the modified corn. Endometriosis Rising rates of endometriosis coincide with increased consumption of genetically modified foods over the last decade, according to a Canadian report published in the December 2010 Ã¢â¬Å"Gynecology, Obstetrics and Fertility. Ã¢â¬ The presence of pesticide residue and foreign proteins in genetically modified foods may be the culprit, say the authors, citing the Ã¢â¬Å"low-dose hypothesisÃ¢â¬ that accumulation of toxins, along with added chemicals for the stabilization and delivery of pesticides designed for use with genetically modified foods, multiply the risk factors and could be harmful for their immune-toxic effects and ability to disrupt the endocrine system. Read more: http://www. livestrong. com/article/345554-disadvantages-of-genetically-modified-food/#ixzz2G2YGRNlT. Genetically modified food has been on the market since the early 90Ã¢â¬â¢s and since that time has attracted both positive and negative attention. Many people believe genetically modified food to be unsafe for human consumption and a hazard to the natural environment. There have been numerous studies undertaken to determine the risks involved with genetically engineering foods. As yet no set conclusions have been reached about the risk involved with genetically engineered food and strict guidelines have been established to regulate the genetically modified foods that can be sold to the consumer. What is Genetically Modified Food? Genetically modified food is food that has been altered at the DNA level. This is done by very precise genetic engineering techniques developed by scientists. In general the aim of genetically modifying food is simple, either to make the food more marketable or make it easier to produce. Most food that is genetically modified are plant products or vegetables such as soybeans, corn and tomatoes. The genetic modification of crops happened prior to scientific engineering via breeding and cross pollination. This method is still used to create crops that are more resistant to pests or to produce plants that yield bigger harvests. Scientific genetic engineering allows for a specific gene to be taken from one organism and transplanted into another. The gene responsible for making a plant resistant to pests can be quickly and efficiently transplanted into another plant allowing it to gain this resistant property. Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Food. Ã¢â¬ ¢ There have been numerous criticisms leveled at genetically modified produce and it is important that we as the consumer are informed about the possible drawbacks of a product. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Changing plants may have lasting effects on other organisms in the ecosystem. The change in a plant may cause it to be toxic to an insect or animal that uses it as its main food source. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Due to the widespread use of insect resistant genes in crops the insects may become resistant to the genetic modifications. This would cause a widespread loss of crops and plants that have the natural immunity leading to a loss in biodiversity. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Breeding and cross pollination across unintended species could occur resulting in things such as insect resistant weeds. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cross pollination can also occur across crops that are not genetically modified leading to lawsuits about who owns the GM technology and seed. The same thing can happen between organic crops and genetically modified crops making it difficult to maintain an organic status. Ã¢â¬ ¢ A huge concern is that genetic modification could cause allergies in humans due to gene modification of plants. People may find that they are now allergic to other food products Ã¢â¬â people because they contain a gene from the allergen they have. One example is the use of a Brazilian nut gene in corn. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Some studies have shown that it may affect the human digestive system in a number of ways. The incorporation of substances that may interact badly with one another in food or in fact be poisonous to people may happen. The modification of certain genes may make some plant substances difficult to digest at all. Ã¢â¬ ¢ A major economical concern is that the control of world food sources may be limited to large companies because they own the GM seeds and have the money to start and finish the accreditation process. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Genetic modification can also make it difficult to know what you are eating, as a plant could contain animals products via genetic engineering. This could cause issues for those with dietary restrictions and religious commitments. Related Articles.
Monday, January 6, 2020
INTERNAL RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT Name of the Student: MANIKA GUPTA Enrollment No.: 04615903915 Course: MBA-II Batch: 2015-2017 Shift: MORNING Section: A Subject: E-BUSINESS Subject Code: MS-114 Topic of Assignment: E-COMMERCE STRATEGY RELATED TO BUSINESS STRATEGY Subject TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s Name: Ms. KHUSHBU ARORA RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT Subject: e-Business Subject Code: MS-114 Semester: MBA II Sem, I Shift; Section - A Batch: 2015-17 Instructor: Ms. Khushbu Arora QUESTION: Explain how e-Commerce Strategy relates to other aspects of overall Business Strategy. SOLUTION: Dimensions of an E-commerce Strategy and is relatedness with overall business strategy: Ã¯ ¶ Leadership The primary drivers of change and the creators of strategic vision in an organization are the CEO and senior executives. A strong project champion is a senior executive or someone in a position to demonstrate to a senior executive the potential added value such a project could bring to the organization. Leadership includes: 1. 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